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Affordable early years education and childcare potentially enables parents, particularly mothers, to be in paid employment. International studies have found that countries with greater enrolment rates in publicly funded or provided childcare also have higher maternal employment rates, although untangling causal relationships is complex. From the point of view of the household, additional income, especially for the less well-off, is itself associated with better outcomes for children, as child poverty has been shown to be a key independent determinant of children’s outcomes. From the point of view of the public purse, as mothers employment they are likely to claim fewer benefits and to generate extra revenues income tax and national insurance contributions.